锘? There are several key elements when it comes to designing a training program. For example Yohan Cabaye 2016 EURO Maillots
, take the requirements for a speed training program. An athlete must establish a good foundation of strength before participating in plyometric training. The athlete must also work on technique prior to jumping straight into an intensive speed program. An athlete must also establish a good level of flexibility before performing the explosive movements of many of the training methods. After understanding all of the components that make up speed you will now be able to begin to design a program that bests suits you and your needs. First of all let's talk about the various stages and phases of a training program. Periodization refers to the various cycles of a training program where the training stimulus changes in a structured way. The training programs may vary amongst different coaches and athletes but they all address the components of flexibility, endurance, strength, speed, recovery and power training. The Three Cycles are: Micro cycles will often consist of a 7-14 day training phase; Meso-cycle consist of a 4-6 week training phase and a Macro-cycle consists of the entire term of a training cycle. It is often represented by one year in length. Planning often takes into account the stage of season the athlete is in. The three stages are pre-season, in-season and post season. The pre-season is a progressive training program that prepares the athlete for the competitive season. The in-season is where the athlete is in continuous competition and is often in a maintenance phase. Gains are achieved through match play. The final stage is the post-season which occurs after a competitive season and mainly comprises of rest, rehabilitation and recovery. There are several key principles to consider when designing a training program: Specificity refers to selecting the appropriate exercises and drills that are specific to the demands of your sport. To take this one step further you must also analyse the specific movement patterns and needs of the specific positions with in your sport. For example a tennis player who serves and volleys will require more emphasis on speed in a forwards direction following the serve where as a baseline player will work more on lateral speed. Variety is required for the purpose of helping the athlete to maintain motivation and interest in training. It is our human nature to get bored quickly so if you have the exact same training routines then you will become bored and find these sessions monotonous. Variety can still be achieved while choosing sport and position specific exercises. Overload is a key concept to constant improvements. An athlete will improve when they are subjected to gradually and progressively increasing training loads. There are a number of ways of to increase the load such as increasing the duration of training, the frequency of training and increasing the intensity at which you train. The athlete must be consistent and disciplined when it comes to their training. Each fitness component must be trained on a regular basis according to their specific program. Facility availability is very important to a coach. It is great if you have unlimited access to a gym, courts or playing field. However, it is not always the way as many teams may be required to use one field. This is where you need to plan your sessions around other teams and find a fair balance between all. Sports such as college tennis where there may be twelve players on a team, may only have access to three courts which will force the tennis coach to become more creative in their training programs so that players can practice both singles and doubles. Individual differences amongst athletes are often ignore by sports coaches. Many coaches fall into the old traditional methods of training every player as if they were all the same and possessed the same physical qualities. It is important to identify the individual differences amongst athletes and then assist each athlete on an individual basis to become stronger in the areas that they need to improve on. If you are prepared when conducting a training session then everything will seem to run a lot smoother. Also, it is important to have a back-up plan in case of inclement weather. Have all of your equipment ready in advance. If you wait until your training session is about to begin then you are likely to face problems of missing or having broken equipment that could affect your training session. Assess your training program. The key to improving a training session is for the coach to step back every now and then and to really study the group when they train. This will help the coach see what works and what doesn't work. Keeping records involves having a notepad on hand so that you can record any results as they occur. If you try and wait until the end of training to collect the results or times from the athletes then many will have forgotten their scores. Learn to take your own personal notes immediately after training as this will help you to make the necessary modifications to your future training sessions. Skill demonstration is essential in order for all athletes to undertsand how to complete the drill. You must allow sufficient time to clearly describe and demonstrate each exercise or test to be performed. I also have found it worthwhile to explain to the athletes why they are performing these specific exercises and how they relate to their goals. If the athletes understand why they are training a certain way then they are likely to try harder. It is also important to understand group placement when demonstrating these exercises. The best formation is to have all of your athletes in a single file or semi-circle as this way they all will have clear vision of your demonstration. Group instruction is important in order to allow time to speak to the athletes while in a group rather .