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Postautor: qianhong520 » 26 lip 2016, o 04:45

锘? Because of Shanghai's status as the cultural and economic center of East Asia for the first half of the twentieth century nike air max 2014 homme pas cher , it is popularly seen as the birthplace of everything considered modern in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism and the more "bourgeois" , more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers Shanghai is the birthplace of everything considered modern in China; and was the cultural and economic center of East Asia for the first half of the twentieth century. It was the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism (pioneered by Lu Xun and Mao Dun) and the more bourgeois, more romantically and aesthetically inclined writers (such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng, Eileen Chang). Besides literature, Shanghai was also the birthplace of Chinese cinema. China?s first short film, The Difficult Couple (Nanfu Nanqi, 1913) nike air max 2014 noir , and the country?s first fictional feature film, Orphan Rescues Grandfather (Gu?er Jiuzu Ji, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established Shanghai as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai?s film industry went on to blossom during the early Thirties, generating Marilyn Monroe like stars such as Zhou Xuan, who committed suicide in 1957. The talent and passion of Shanghainese filmmakers following World War II and the Communist Revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. Shanghainese people have been stereotyped by other Chinese (both urban and rural) as being pretentious, arrogant, and xenophobic; and at the same time admired for their meticulous attention to detail, faithfulness in contract, and professionalism. There is a very common saying among mainlanders that Shanghai women are the most beautiful in China. Nearly all registered Shanghainese residents are descendents of immigrants from the two small adjacent provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang, regions that generally speak the same family of dialects as the Shanghainese nike air max 2013 homme , that is Wu Chinese. Much of pre-modern Shanghainese culture is an integration of cultural elements from these two regions. The Shanghainese dialect reflects this as well. Recent migrants into Shanghai, however, come from all over China, do not speak the local dialect and are therefore forced to use Mandarin as a lingua franca. Rising crime rate, littering, harassive panhandling, and overloading of basic infrastructure (mainly public transportation, schools) associated with the rise of these migrant populations (over 3 million new migrants in 2003 alone) have been generating some extent of ill will and xenophobia from the Shanghainese. The new migrants are easy to spot by the Shanghainese, and are often targets of both intentional and unintentional discrimination. This further intensifies the misunderstandings and stereotypes between the Shanghainese and the Chinese outside of the Lower Yangtze basin. Quite some chinese from other provinces of China think that men who are shanghai-born and shanghai-bred can be very henpecked. Admittedly there is some truth in the opinion: husbands in Shanghai could play the roles of a bread-earner, of a chef, of a plumber nike air max 2013 noir , of a carpenter, etc., simultaneously, which naturally leads people to forming such a somewhat derisive view of Shanghai men. Interestingly, this view, though a little bit outmoded in the context of the new century, is still one of first things that plunge into people's minds at the mere mention of Shanghai. One uniquely Shanghainese cultural element is the Shikumen residencies (longtang), which are characteristic two or three-storey blackgray brick structures cut across with a few decorative dark red stripes. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, with the entrance to each alley, the gate, wrapped by a stylistic stone arc (the name Shikumen is literally stone gate). The Shikumen residencies is a cultural blend of the elements found in Western architecture with traditional Lower Yangtze Chinese architecture and social behavior. All traditional Chinese dwellings had a courtyard nike air max pas cher , and the Shikumen was no exception. Yet, to compromise with its urban nature, it was much much smaller, and served mainly as a room without a roof, providing a "interior haven" to the commotions in the streets, allowing for raindrops to fall and vegetation to grow freely within a residence. The courtyard also allowed sunlight and adequate ventilation into the rooms. Before World War II, more than 80% of the population in the city lived in these kinds of dwellings. Other Shanghainese cultural artifacts include the cheongsam, a modernization of the traditional ChineseManchurian qipao garment which first appeared in the 1910s in Shanghai. The cheongsam dress was slender with a high cut, and tight fitting. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao which was designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and portrayed an unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese population in general. As Western fashions changed nike air zoom pegasus 31 rose , the basic cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-necked sleeveless dresses, bell-like sleeves and, the black lace frothing at the hem of a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black, beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. And later, checked fabrics became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. In recent times Shanghai has become a prominent city and a cultural center. Both the Chinese and Western cultures have merged and developed here since the 锘?.
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